Types ofThyroid Surgery

Thyroid surgery removes part or all of your thyroid gland.

Your thyroid gland has two lobes, left and right.

  • Total thyroidectomy removes both lobes of your thyroid gland.
  • Hemithyroidectomy removes half of your thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid nodulectomy removes a thyroid nodule and leaves the rest of your thyroid gland intact. This works best if the nodule is in the centre of the thyroid.

If you have all or most of your thyroid gland removed, you’ll need to take thyroid hormone tablets daily for the rest of your life. If you have half the gland removed, you may or may not need thyroid hormone replacement.

Open surgery

Open thyroid surgery is by far the most common type in Australia. It's safe and effective. The scar is in a natural skin crease on the front of your neck, and the cosmetic result is usually excellent. Your surgeon will make the incision and remove part or all of your thyroid. The incision is between 4 and 7 cm or longer, depending on the size of your thyroid and your neck.

Keyhole (endoscopic) surgery

This surgery is done using several smaller incisions, usually between 2 and 2.5 cm. Your surgeon uses an endoscope (a tube with a light and camera on the tip) to view your thyroid nodule and removes it by using instruments inserted through the incision.

Keyhole surgery usually takes longer than open surgery and may have increased risks. You’ll need to find an endocrine surgeon who’s skilled in keyhole techniques.

If you’re having keyhole surgery, be aware that if your surgeon has difficulties with the procedure they may need to change to an open surgery.

Robotic surgery

At the moment there are very few Australian surgeons doing robotic thyroid surgery, and experience is very limited. This type of thyroid surgery has been abandoned in the USA for safety concerns but remains popular in Asia.

Surgery for thyroid cancer

Following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer, there are several surgical options, depending on the type of cancer. Removing either half or all of the thyroid gland will be recommended depending on the size of the tumour and other clinical features. Lymph node removal may also be recommended. 

The approach your surgeon recommends will depend on the stage and type of cancer. 

Following total thyroidectomy surgery, your surgeon may recommend radioactive iodine treatment, depending on the risk level of the cancer. Radioactive iodine will destroy any remaining remnants of your thyroid.

Very rarely, thyroid cancer may spread to other parts of your body, and if that happens, radioactive iodine can treat that too. More advanced cases of thyroid cancer are rare, but occasionally, your doctor may discuss other treatments such as external beam radiation, chemotherapy and/or targeted drug therapy. Learn more

If you’re pregnant

Because of the possible risks to your foetus from general anaesthesia, your doctor may recommend delaying thyroid surgery until after you’ve had your baby. The exceptions would be if you have thyroid nodules that are restricting your breathing or if you have a large or invasive thyroid cancer. If you to need to have thyroid surgery while you’re pregnant, the best time is during the second trimester.

Print this page and take it with you when you discuss your procedure with your surgeon.

Results vs. risks of the procedure

The benefits and potential complications of the procedure.


Information is provided by HCF in good faith for the convenience of members. It is not an endorsement or recommendation of any form of treatment nor is it a substitute for medical advice, and you should rely on the advice of your treating doctors in relation to all matters concerning your health. Every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information, however HCF takes no responsibility for any injury, loss, damage or other consequences of the use of this information.